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Cosmetic, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

What is Gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs, owing to pubertal changes in hormones.

The disorder is observed in 40 to 60 percent of the male population. It leads to psychological distress or dysphoria in sexual terms, because it womanises the looks of the male body. Gynecomastia results from an imbalance in the hormonal environment in the body, with a relative excess of oestrogens (female hormones) when compared to androgens (male hormones). This condition physiologically occurs in infants, adolescents and middle age to elderly. Statistically speaking, 40 percent of infants and 35% middle aged to older males suffer from gynecomastia. A significant part of the incidents of gynecomastia reported during puberty vanishes up straight in a few years.

Other possible incidents of gynecomastia may be triggered by a variety of hormonal disorders, led particularly by liver cancer and including some other types of cancer and systemic diseases like AIDS. The causes of gynecomastia can result as a side effect of numerous medications such as cardiacs, anti-cancer drugs and anabolic steroids, as well as drugs of abuse.

However, especially in obese or overweight men, there can be an increase in fatty tissue over the breast area, which creates an appearance of enlarged breasts without any true enlargement of the male breast tissue, a condition known as “Pseudogynecomastia”. Pseudogynecomastia is a common, widely encountered condition.

Symptoms of gynecomastia include a rubbery or firm feel or stagnant, non-progressive stance of the glandular tissue observing symmetry in size with a typical nipple, asymmetries between the sizes of both breasts or extravagant enlargement of the breast matching that of a woman’s, or even further growth, yielding a saggy appearance.

The first step before attempting a gynecomastia surgery should be to understand the cause. If there is good reason to believe that there is an imbalance in the hormonal environment in the patient’s body, then his or her conditions must first be checked by an endocrinologist. Advanced hormonal inspections should be performed. If the results testify an imbalance then appropriate therapeutic procedure should be performed. In case of pubertal gynecomastia, time is the only cure, provided that all appropriate monitors are applied. A majority of conditions falling in this definition recover in a few couple of years.

Approach to Gynecomastia Treatment

  • Surgery: Extraction of the excessive breast tissue through surgical operation
  • Liposuction: Removal of the excessive breast tissue by the liposuction method

Liposuction alone may yield the desired outcomes in most of patients with gynecomastia. Patients with excess and dense glandular tissue, in addition to fat can undergo Vaser Liposuction surgery. Where this falls insufficient, the excess glandular tissue can be removed by applying a small incision in the perimeter of the nipple. Patients with excess skin and downward looking nipples, the skin extraction should follow a pattern that keeps the scar inside the perimeter of the nipple.

  • Hard or firm glandular tissue, resembling a large button in appearance
  • Differentiating size between breasts
  • Enlargement of the breasts resembling a woman’s
  • Medium to large sized breasts that sag


  • The procedure requires general anaesthesia
  • The surgery takes 1 hour in average
  • The patient may return home upon release on the same day
  • The operation site should be supported with medical corsets for about four weeks


  • The breasts will look symmetrical, flat and young, following the surgery
  • An unnoticeable mark is left on the nipple

Frequently Asked Questions

Surgical procedures are the only working solution and hence, the condition may not possibly be cured with any other method. The surgery is pretty simple and may yield satisfactory results if performed by a qualified surgeon.
Gynecomastia caused by obesity or overweight does generally heal with weight loss.
Either there will be slight pain or none. The pain can be eliminated with muscle relaxers and ordinary pain-killers.
Hiking and jogging are permissible during the first month. The patients should avoid hard moves that challenge the body to its upper limits and heavy, strenuous sporting activities. Workout as in body-building should commence only after the first month.
Patients having undergone a gynecomastia surgery should use medical corsets, that is singlets designed especially for the purpose to prevent any sagging skin and expedite the rate of progression towards the goal.
Gynecomastia treatment surgery is a one-time procedure that removes both the breast tissue and fat tissue from male bodies. A certain enlargement takes place in the breasts, only after an excessive weight gain.
The patient may be released in a few hours following surgery. He may resume normal life and return to work on the next day.
As with all invasive procedures, you should quit smoking at least three weeks before undergoing a gynecomastia surgery. Use of blood thinners like aspirin and other similar drugs must be avoided during the last week before surgery.Stay away from the following: • Pain-killers like Apranax, Voltaren, Vermidon etc. (good substitutes for use in case of need include Minoset and Novalgin) • Multi-vitamin pills containing substances like Ginseng, gingko biloba, co-enzymes, Q, C / E / K vitamins etc. • Herbal products containing green tea, flaxseed, cherry stem, tomato seeds • All dietary supplements • Foods that can lead to constipation should be avoided for 3 days before surgery, and vegetable dishes and easy-to-digest foods should be consumed.
During the first days of surgery, the breasts will be edematous and firm, and bruises may form. The bruises fade by the end of first week. The swelling and firmness will be significant for the first 3 weeks. After the third week, swelling will deflate fast. The breasts will get their final shape only during the 3rd month. To expedite the healing of oedema, lymph drains, radio frequency procedures can be applied following the 3rd week. The follow-up checks take place at the 3rd week, 3rd month, 6th month and at the end of the 1st year unless exceptional conditions arise.
If the patient gains weight, he may experience a slight enlargement in his breasts, but, never towards a size that might help reinstatement of his conditions before surgery.
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